This item: Macintosh Terminal Pocket Guide. 5.0 out of 5 stars Perfect for beginners! Easy to read and understand. September 9, 2016. The friendly Mac OS X interface protects you from much of the damage that can be wrought from the command line. So, be a little careful if you’re just learning your way around. You’ll find a growing number of articles in Macinstruct, and there are some great books available about using Unix in OS X. The Terminal in OS X is often, in my opinion anyway, an overlooked area of the operating system. Most newcomers to Macs look at it with fear, as the sight of anything code-related or advanced is enough to put them off for life. Fortunately, you don't have to be scared of Terminal and think of it as. Learning how to use Terminal will give you a better understanding of how your Mac works under the hood, and give you the skills needed to troubleshoot any issue. Choosing a Terminal Emulator Before you take the red pill and jump into the complex world of bins and bashes, you’ll need to choose a terminal emulator.
Instead of clicking around and selecting applications one-by-one, you can install them with a terminal command. You even even install multiple applications with a single command. On Ubuntu (other distributions have their own package management systems), the command to install a new software package is: sudo apt-get install packagename This may seem a bit complicated, but it’s working just like the Firefox command above. The above line launches sudo, which asks for your password before launching apt-get with root (administrator) privileges. The apt-get program reads the arguments install packagename and installs a package named packagename.
This is a command line tutorial primarily conducted in in the OS X command line. Because of OSX’s unix heritage, much of the info here is also useful in other unix inspired systems, like the Linux command line. The command line can be a scary place when you first encounter it. When you read some instructions that tell you to open up a terminal window and type some cryptic words and phrases, it can seem like you’ve been sucked into the matrix, expected to decrypt an endless stream of indecipherable characters. Fear not, it’s really not that difficult to use. In fact, when you see an experienced user looking at a terminal that is scrolling line after line of text faster than you can even read it, they aren’t really reading it either.
Try using the man command to learn about these commands • mkdirMake a new directory • touchMake a new empty file • cpCopy a file • mvMove a file • rmRemove a file or directory (learn about the -r option) • less Show the contents of a file in a scrolling buffer If you’re looking to take your programming to another level, check out our Techdegrees. Our faculty of tech professionals guide learners like you from mastering the fundamentals of coding to polishing the portfolio and skills of a job-ready software developer. Try one of them out with a today.
More on that later. Again, each program has different arguments, and the order of the arguments typically matter.
Nearly all commands follow a common pattern with 3 main parts. The program, the options, and the arguments. Let’s see an example.
The free command. It’s the most frequently used command to track memory usage on Linux.
This is a common convention used is denote what follows is a command to be run. Once you have typed it out, hit enter to run it, and see what happens. The program is the verb. It describes what you want to do. In our example ls is the program. Ls is short for list, meaning, I want to see a list of files somewhere on my computer.
• ntp: Toggle whether your Mac syncs its clock with a time server. • restart: Tell your Mac to restart. • safeboot: Tell your Mac to restart.
Terminal: This is the actual interface to the console. The program we use to interact with the console is actually a “terminal emulator”, providing us the experience of typing into an old school terminal from the convenience of our modern graphical operating system. Running a Command.
• dock: Change your Dock’s settings,. • finder: Toggle hidden files, extensions, and the desktop. • firewall: Disable or enable the macOS firewall. • gatekeeper: Disable or enable.
But here are a couple of things you can try if you’re curious: Type “ls” and press Return. A list of the files and folders in your home directory will scroll. Type “man ls” to peruse the help (“man” or manual) files about the ls (list file) command.
Where Are You? In the console, you are always working in a directory, or folder, on your computer.
For the most part they may be scanning for some key words, but mostly they are just waiting for it to stop. Check out our full of learning courses.
• wifi: Turn Wi-Fi on and off, retrieve your current Wi-Fi password, or scan all nearby networks. Most of these things were possible to do from the command line before, but m-cli makes them a lot easier to discover and execute. If you’re a command line junkie, there’s no reason not to install it. And while you’re at it, check out these.
It’s probably not necessary (or even a good idea) unless the computer is in an extremely insecure and threat-intensive environment (like a middle school). And, you’ll need to know what you’re doing and how to undo it. Apple’s KnowledgeBase article #106482 () will get you started. And a couple of side doors. One little-known trick is using the “console” login. For this to work, auto-login needs to be disabled so the login screen prompts for both the username and password.
We call this your working directory. You can see where you are using pwd(short for print working directory) $ pwd This command will print out your current location. You can change your directory with cd (short for change directory). If you pass it an argument, it will change your to that location, if it exists. Without an argument, it will take you to your home directory ( ~). $ cd Documents You’ll notice that I just passed it a directory named Documents, because I was in my home directory, that contains a directory called Documents. This is relative path, because I specified my destination relative to my current directory.
(The system does actually go back more than a couple of decades, but at the time it was a vast improvement over stacks of punch cards.) The command line is something that power users dreamed of through the years of the single-digit Classic Mac OS versions. The sometimes-complex command-line incantations offer far more flexibility than your computer’s more graphical outerwear. If you know how to cast the right spells, you can get the computer to do things that are either difficult or impossible when locked into the beautiful graphical interface. Because it was built as an overlay of the original command line system (called DOS for “Disk Operating System”), Microsoft Windows has had this ability since its inception. However, its capabilities are arguably far more limited compared to the Mac. In OS X on the Mac, the command line lets you speak directly with Unix, the venerable operating system that lies at the core of every post-Classic Macintosh.
• group: View or change groups of users on your Mac. • hostname: View or change your Mac’s hostname • info: See what version of macOS you’re running. • lock: Lock your Mac. • network: See or change your current location. • nosleep: Stop your Mac from going to sleep, for a set number of seconds or until a particular command finishes.
In this Linux/Mac terminal tutorial, we will be learning how to use the find command. The find command allows us to scan through our file system in order to find files and directories that meet a certain criteria. We will also learn how to perform actions on the results that are Let's get started. If you enjoy these videos and would like to support my channel, I would greatly appreciate any assistance through my Patreon account: Or a one-time contribution through PayPal: If you would like to see additional ways in which you can support the channel, you can check out my support page: Equipment I use and books I recommend: You can find me on: My website - Facebook - Twitter - Google Plus - Instagram.
Holding down cmd-S while your computer is starting up will boot up directly into Apple’s version of Unix, called 'Darwin.' It’s a command-line environment like the terminal but, as we mentioned, far more powerful because it eliminates the need for passwords and overrides any access permissions either your or OS X has established. Just above the line with the command prompt, you’ll see some text instructions for running a utility called 'fsck.'
(You can set this up in the Accounts preference pane in System Settings). When the login screen appears, type “console” as the username and the GUI will disappear and you’ll be prompted for a username and password. You’ll find yourself in an environment that looks about the same as the single-user login, but as a regular user, rather than the all-powerful 'root.' A new (since Tiger) and equally obscure gateway to the Terminal is your Tiger install DVD. You’ll find it under the Utilities menu (near the equally useful Disk Utility application) when you reach the first installation screen.
• sleep: Tell your Mac to go to sleep. • timezone: Change your Mac’s timezone. • trash: Empty your Mac’s Trash folder. • update: Update Mac App Store software without launching the App Store • user: Manage users on your Mac. • volume: Change the volume on your Mac. • vpn: Manage VPN connections. • wallpaper: Set your Mac’s wallpaper.
How to open the command line. Before you can use it, you need to be able to find it. So what we need to do is open the terminal. On OS X, open your Applications folder, then open the Utilities folder. Open the Terminal application.
The command nano document1 tells nano to launch and open the file named document1 from the current directory. If you wanted to open a document located in another directory, you’d need to specify the full path to the file – for example, nano /home/chris/Documents/document1. If you specify a path to a file that does not exist, nano (and many other programs) will create a new, blank file at that location and open it. To work with files and directories, you will need to know a few basic commands: • cd – That ~ to the left of the prompt represents your home directory (that’s /home/you), which is the terminal’s default directory.
To change to another directory, you can use the cd command. For example cd / would change to the root directory, cd Downloads would change to the Downloads directory inside the current directory (so this only opens your Downloads directory if the terminal is in your home directory), cd /home/you/Downloads would change to your Downloads directory from anywhere in the system, cd ~ would change to your home directory, and cd.
For instance to learn more about ls, run $ man ls The manual can be scrolled with the arrow keys or space bar. Pressing q will quit. Want to know more about man? Run man man Some more commands. There are a ton of different commands you can use, but only a couple dozen will get you pretty effective in the command line. We learned about ls, pwd, cd, and man.
There is a good chance that you can live a long and happy life as a Mac user without ever being concerned with this disk repair utility. A less-than-obvious feature of OS X 10.4 called journaling makes fsck far less important than it was.
(See below, under the 'First Rule of Computer Security'). Secondly, there’s a way to add a password that will take charge before any part of the operating system (either Unix or OS X) starts loading from the hard drive. When it’s enabled, the Open Firmware password as it’s called will block the ability to boot up into single user mode and even prevent it from booting from a CD.
Each command has it’s own options. Most often the order of the options do not matter, but occasionally they may. The arguments are what’s left. In our case the ~.These are the objects of our sentence.
You can launch a program by typing its name at the prompt. Everything you launch here – from graphical applications like Firefox to command-line utilities – is a program. (Bash actually has a few built-in commands for basic file management and such, but those function like programs, too.) Unlike on Windows, you don’t have to type the full path to a program to launch it.
Some of the more advanced tutorials and columns in Macinstruct will be showing you some tips and tricks for using the command line interface on OS X. Here, we’re just going to show you a few ways to get there and give you a chance to try a few safe (look-but-don’t-touch) commands. Going Through the Front Door: The Terminal Double-clicking on the Terminal application in your Utilities folder is the easiest way to gain access to the OS X command line. It opens as a rather stark-looking window floating on the colorful expanse of your Desktop. By default, the prompt is set as your computer name, followed by a colon. To the right of that, the cursor blinks, impatiently waiting for your command. Because we’re mostly interested in ways to get to the command line right now, we’re not going to get very deep into the specific commands.
From a security standpoint, this is a mixed blessing because that same install DVD will give you the ability to reset your administrator password. Safety First! The friendly Mac OS X interface protects you from much of the damage that can be wrought from the command line. So, be a little careful if you’re just learning your way around. You’ll find a growing number of articles in Macinstruct, and there are some great books available about using Unix in OS X.
$ vmstat -s 1017536 K total memory 944492 K used memory 406372 K active memory 239000 K inactive memory 73044 K free memory. The top command.
They describe what we want our command to act on. In our example the ~ is a shorthand name for a special folder on your computer: your home folder. So we are saying we want to list all of our files in our home folder. Some programs may not need arguments. For instance, without arguments, ls will list the files in the directory you are currently in.
If you do some research, it’s possible to find a way around nearly all the security safeguards built into OS X (or any other popular operating system for that matter). But your last line of defense is always controlling physical access to the computer. This is why your company’s server room probably has better security than the CEO’s office (at least it should have) and your laptop needs to be treated as if it was public property (it easily could become that if you’re not careful). Meet Your Macinstructor Ric Getter is a frequent contributor to. He started out working in media in the early 70's when nothing could out-gun a motor drive Nikon and a bandolier of Tri-X film. Life in Silicon Valley paid off in early 1984 when a Mac 128 landed on his desk and he's been in love with the platform from that day on. He has since retreated to Portland, Oregon with his Mac-loving wife where he writes about computers, works in education technology and still obstinately refuses to completely leave the television business.
It’s short for “long”. Without this option, the list will be simply the filenames. When we modify the command with -l, it will display to us the files along with more detailed information. Options are just that: Optional. Any command should have some default behavior when called without options.
Run top and press “k”. It’ll prompt you for the process ID and ask for the signal to kill. You can enter the PID of your choice and provide 15 as the signal value.
For example, mv original renamed moves a file named original in the current directory to a file named renamed in the current directory, effectively renaming it. This may be a bit overwhelming at first, but these are the basic commands you need to master to effectively work with files in the terminal.
$ free -m total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 993 922 71 0 61 216 -/+ buffers/cache: 644 349 Swap: 1023 0 1023 The “-m” option returns the usage data in MB format. The command. Another way to quickly check the memory consumption is by printing the command. You need root or access to run this command. $ sudo cat /proc/meminfo MemTotal: 1017536 kB MemFree: 72092 kB Buffers: 63160 kB Cached: 221464 kB SwapCached: 576 kB. It reverts with the memory usage in the same way as the command does. But you need not be a root user to run this command.
To find them, type m subcommand help. For example, here’s me exploring what dock can do: As you can see, dock offers several tweaks.
Move around your file system with cd, view files in the current directory with ls, create directories with mkdir, and manage files with the rm, cp, and mv commands. Tab Completion Tab completion is a very useful trick. While typing something – a command, file name, or some other types of arguments – you can press Tab to autocomplete what you’re typing. For example, if you type firef at the terminal and press Tab, firefox automatically appears. This saves you from having to type things exactly – you can press Tab and the shell will finish typing for you. This also works with folders, file names, and package names.
For example, you can type sudo apt-get install pidg and press Tab to automatically complete pidgin. In many cases, the shell won’t know what you’re trying to type because there are multiple matches. Press the Tab key a second time and you’ll see a list of possible matches. Continue typing a few more letters to narrow things down and press Tab again to continue. For more tricks like this one, read. Mastering the Terminal At this point, you should hopefully feel a little bit more comfortable in the terminal and have a better understanding of how it works. To learn more about the terminal – and eventually master it – continue your journey with these articles: • • • • • •.
Mac Terminal For Beginners 2016 Excel
Prompt: This is the beginning of the command line. It usually provides some contextual information like who you are, where you are and other useful info. It typically ends in a $. After the prompt is where you will be typing commands.
Mac Terminal For Beginners
If you are in a situation, where the memory usage is between 90-100%. Then, you should use top command to determine the process responsible. Most of the time, you can verify the process consuming resources by looking at the <%CPU> or the <%MEM> columns in the top output. Running HTOP Command in Terminal. Additional Linux commands to isolate memory issues.
$ ls -l ~ Type the code above. Do not type the leading $.